5.139 William Harrison DARWIN

5.139 William Harrison DARWIN

Male 1841 - 1925  (83 years)

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  • Name William Harrison DARWIN 
    Title 5.139 
    Born 20 Mar 1841  Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Gender Male 
    Civil War: CSA Enlistment 30 Jul 1861  Livingston, Overton County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    TN: 25th Tennessee Infantry (Co. G); Pvt. 
    Military Service 08 Oct 1862  Perryville, Boyle County, Kentucky, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Battle of Perryville 
    Military Service 31 Dec 1862  Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Battle of Murfreesboro 
    Military Service 18 Sep 1863  Chickamauga, Walker County, Georgia, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Battle of Chickamauga 
    Military Service 17 Jun 1864  Petersburg, Virginia, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Captured as Prisoner of War 
    Military Service 24 Jun 1864  Point Lookout, St. Marys County, Maryland, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Transferred to Point Lookout PoW camp via City Point 
    Military Service 23 Jul 1864  Elmira, Chemung County, New York, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Transferred to Elmira PoW Camp; released 15 May 1865 
    Census 1900  Polk County, Arkansas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    William H. Darwin (age 59), Farmer 
    Died 22 Feb 1925  Wickes, Polk County, Arkansas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
    • cardiac disease
    Buried Daniel Cemetery, Wickes, Polk County, Arkansas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • Commentary: DWD 5.139

      At the outbreak of the Civil War, William Harrison Darwin did not immediately enlist in the army on account of other commitments at home but when he did enlist, aged 21, on 13 Feb. 1862 at Livingston, Overton Co., TN, he was made up to Corporal with the 25th Tennessee Infantry Regt. CSA, in Co. G, where his brother John was already serving.

      Action came at the beginning of September 1862, when the regiment was ordered from Chattanooga to Sparta, Gainesboro and Livingston in Tennessee, then to foray into Burkesville and Campbellsville in Kentucky. Having returned to Lebanon, Tennessee, the unit's next action in Kentucky was at the Battle of Perryville, 8 Oct. 1862, where the 25th Regt. served in Brig. Gen. Bushrod Johnson's Brigade and after this inconclusive battle, they were back in Knoxville by the end of October 1862 having marched some 555 miles in 60 days. In the next two months, they would add another 160 miles, marching from Knoxville to Bridport, Alabama, Estill Springs and then to Tullahoma where they rested up. At the Battle of Murfreesboro, 31 Dec. 1862, the 25th Regt. suffered 120 casualties out of 336 engaged but luckily William came through without a scratch. After the battle, the regiment camped around Wartrace and Tullahoma until the next action at Hoover's Gap beginning 24 June 1863. The next battle was at Chickamauga in Georgia, 18 Sept. 1863, where they had a further 56 casualties out of 145 engaged.

      On 22 Nov. 1863, Johnson's Brigade was placed under Gen. James Longstreet on his expedition into East Tennessee and Southwest Virginia until May 1864, when it moved to Richmond, Virginia. William's luck ran out when he was captured 17 June 1864 in the fighting in front of Petersburg and taken Prisoner of War and sent to a camp at Elmira, NY. He was released 15 May 1865 and transferred to Point Lookout, MD, from where he finally made his way back to Jackson County, to resume his normal occupation as a farmer.

      On 9 Jan. 1868, William married Julia (Hale) Fox at Flynn's Lick and they are listed together with their first child, Charles, on the 1870 TN census living on their own farm in Jackson County. In 1876, William decided to move to Fannin County, Texas, where his younger brother, Hiram, had migrated two years earlier and had settled in the Bonham area.

      I was unable to find William's household on the 1880 Texas census but I understand that in 1884, he decided to move once more, this time to Arkansas where he finally settled in Polk County. He is listed on the 1900 AR census in Ozark Twp, Polk Co., with his wife, Julia, and four of his children plus a grandchild, Herman Black, who was living in the household with his mother, Ida. William's eldest son, Edward, was living nearby with his own family of four children. William's wife, Julia, died 19 Aug. 1906 and both the 1910 and 1920 census show William living in the household of his daughter, Ida, now married secondly to James Forsee. On 22 Feb. 1925, William died at his daughter's home in Wickes, Polk Co., Arkansas.
    • References:

      Ann Darwin
      Percy J. Darwin
      25th Tennessee Infantry Regt. Website
    • Biography of William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925)

      [Compiled by Keith and Scott Black, and kindly provided by Stephanie Black Regis]

      William Harrison Darwin was born March 20, 1841, at Flynn's Lick, Tennessee. He was one of nine children of William Green Darwin and Mary Burke. He grew up in the Jackson County area of Tennessee, where living was said to be hard.

      When the War Between the States broke out, being the Southern patriot he was, he enlisted along with his brother John G. Darwin as volunteers in the Tennessee army July 30, 1861. Enlistment was at Livingston, Tennessee. He was assigned to Company G, 25th Regiment, Tennessee Infantry. The 25th Regiment was transferred to the Confederate States, October 1, 1861. He went into Camp of Instruction at Camp Meyers, Tennessee, where he was mustered into Confederate services. He held the rank of Corporal.

      He was involved in several small skirmishes with home guards and federal units along the Kentucky line while at Camp Meyers.

      His first real battle came January 19, 1862, where the 25th Regiment, under Brigadier General Felix K. Zollicoffer's command, was engaged at the Battle of Fishing Creek, where the25th lost 55 members.

      On May 28, 1862, he was involved in the engagement on Farmington Road, Corinth, Mississippi, under the command of Brigadier General Patrick R. Cleburne. He fought at Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, under the command of Brigidier General Bushrod R. Johnson's Brigade, where the 25th Regiment suffered eight casualties.

      William fought and survived the Battles of Murfreesboro and Chickamauga. It is said he marched a total of 555 miles in sixty days.

      In May, 1864, his regiment was moved to Richmond, Virginia, where he was involved in engagements at Walthall Junction, Swift Creek, and Drewry's Bluff. He was captured and taken Prisoner of War, June 17, 1864, somewhere in the Petersburg front. There were not more than 20 members remaining in the 25th Regiment.

      He was taken to City Point, Maryland, June 24, 1864, then to Point Lookout, Maryland, PoW Camp. On July 23, 1864, he was transferred to Elmira Prison Camp, New York, five miles from the Pennsylvania line.

      Elmira was a converted Federal recruit center. It is believed that he was in the sixth group of PoW's to be sent from Point Lookout.

      By mid-August, 1864, more than 9,600 PoW's were crowded into a compound that was meant to hold 5,000 prisoners. Because of overcrowding, hunger, extreme winter weather conditions, harsh treatment by guards, and disease, "Elmira was hell," as described by a Texas Confederate soldier. It had a 24 percent mortality rate that could only be compared to the South's Andersonville.

      Prisoners underwent a unique indignity when a group of townspeople (Yankees) erected observation platforms outside the prison walls and charged a fee of 15 cents to observe the prisoners as they endured life within the compound.

      Because of harsh treatment suffered by Federal prisoners in the South, food rations were deliberately restricted to bread and water causing an epidemic of scurvey. Prisoners were dying of starvation at the rate of twenty-five per day. They were forced to eat rats, apple peelings trampled in the mud and even gnawed at discarded bones when found. A camp surgeon was overheard boasting to have killed more Rebs than any soldier at the front.

      Of a total of 12,123 Confederate PoW's at Elmira, 2,963 died. Today, all that remains of Elmira is a well-kept cemetery.

      William remained at Elmira until he took oath of allegiance May 15, 1865, when released.

      After the war, he went back to Tennessee and married Julia A. Haile, one-half Cherokee Indian, January 9, 1868, in Bowling Green, Kentucky.

      They moved to Texas in the fall of 1876, and then to Arkansas in 1878. His family was among the earlier settlers of Wickes, a small south-western town near the Oklahoma line in Arkansas. There he and his family, including his seven children, homesteaded acreage and built the Darwin house one-half mile east of Wickes on Highway 4 in 1883. He was a farmer and owned and operated the Darwin General Store in Wickes until his death on February 22, 1925. He died of cardiac disease at the age of 83. He is buried alongside his wife Julia at Daniels Cemetery, southeast of Wickes. A Confederate Veterans tombstone marks his grave.

      The old Darwin home stood until 1990, when it was torn down. An article on the Darwin family and a picture of his home was featured in the Ouchita Mountaineer magazine, Winter, 1996.

      References:
      1) Tennesseans in the Civil War, Civil War Centennial Commission
      2) Civil War Prisons, Kent State University Press
      3) Muster Roll Records, US National Archives (NARA)
      4) Memories of Keith S. Black



    Person ID I1082  DARUSA | Descendants of William Darwin
    Last Modified 19 Mar 2013 

    Father William Green DARWIN,   b. 20 Aug 1803, York County, South Carolina, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Aug 1851, Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 47 years) 
    Mother Mary BURKE,   b. 12 Jan 1813, Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Dec 1872, Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 59 years) 
    Married 21 Feb 1833  Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  [4, 5
    Family ID F0607  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Julia Alcarene HAILE,   b. 12 Aug 1843, Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Aug 1906, Wickes, Polk County, Arkansas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 63 years) 
    Married 09 Jan 1868  Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  [6
    Children 
    +1. Edward Clay DARWIN,   b. 13 Nov 1868, Flynns Lick, Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 03 Oct 1931, Hempstead County, Arkansas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 62 years)
    +2. Ida Lorene DARWIN,   b. 25 Nov 1870, Flynns Lick, Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 05 Apr 1939, Wickes, Polk County, Arkansas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 68 years)
     3. Lettia R. DARWIN,   b. 03 Jan 1873,   d. 16 Oct 1873  (Age 0 years)
    +4. William Martin DARWIN,   b. 16 Mar 1876, Flynns Lick, Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 23 Feb 1972, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, Louisiana, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 95 years)
     5. Dudley A. DARWIN,   b. 12 Jan 1878,   d. 05 Mar 1955  (Age 77 years)
     6. Lochie R. DARWIN,   b. 12 Jul 1880, Texas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location
    +7. Julia Alethea DARWIN,   b. 27 Oct 1882, Cove, Polk County, Arkansas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 05 Mar 1973, Hereford, Deaf Smith County, Texas, USA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 90 years)
    Last Modified 30 Nov 2009 
    Family ID F0617  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 20 Mar 1841 - Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsCivil War: CSA Enlistment - TN: 25th Tennessee Infantry (Co. G); Pvt. - 30 Jul 1861 - Livingston, Overton County, Tennessee, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary Service - Battle of Perryville - 08 Oct 1862 - Perryville, Boyle County, Kentucky, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary Service - Battle of Murfreesboro - 31 Dec 1862 - Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary Service - Battle of Chickamauga - 18 Sep 1863 - Chickamauga, Walker County, Georgia, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary Service - Captured as Prisoner of War - 17 Jun 1864 - Petersburg, Virginia, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary Service - Transferred to Point Lookout PoW camp via City Point - 24 Jun 1864 - Point Lookout, St. Marys County, Maryland, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMilitary Service - Transferred to Elmira PoW Camp; released 15 May 1865 - 23 Jul 1864 - Elmira, Chemung County, New York, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 09 Jan 1868 - Jackson County, Tennessee, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsCensus - William H. Darwin (age 59), Farmer - 1900 - Polk County, Arkansas, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 22 Feb 1925 - Wickes, Polk County, Arkansas, USA Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Daniel Cemetery, Wickes, Polk County, Arkansas, USA Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Photos
    Old Darwin Home, Wickes, Ark. drawn by Ben Black
    Old Darwin Home, Wickes, Ark. drawn by Ben Black
    Home of William Harrison Darwin in Wickes, Polk County, AR
    Map of Darwin and Black family dwellings in Wickes, Polk County, AR
    Map of Darwin and Black family dwellings in Wickes, Polk County, AR
    William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925)
    William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925)
    William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925)
    William Harrison Darwin with nephew Hiram Darwin and brother Lon H. Darwin
    William Harrison Darwin with nephew Hiram Darwin and brother Lon H. Darwin
    Standing: William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925)
    Seated left: Leonidas 'Lon' Houston Darwin (1837-1933) - brother of Willam Harrison Darwin
    Seated right: Leonidas Hiram Darwin (1887-1965) - son of Lon Houston Darwin
    William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925) and Julia A. (Haile) Darwin (1843-1906)
    William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925) and Julia A. (Haile) Darwin (1843-1906)
    Marriage photo, taken in 1868

    Histories
    William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925)
    William Harrison Darwin (1841-1925)
    A biography of William H. Darwin (1841-1925), by Keith and Scott Black

  • Sources 
    1. [S65] BIB: 1857: William H. Darwin Bible.
      "Wm H[arrison] Darwin was born March 20th 1841"

    2. [S344] CEN: 1900 AR Polk.

    3. [S65] BIB: 1857: William H. Darwin Bible.
      "W.H.Darwin Died 2/22/1925"

    4. [S65] BIB: 1857: William H. Darwin Bible.
      "Wm. G[reen] Darwin and Mary Burke was Married the 19th day of Feby 1833"

    5. [S19] BIB: 1870: Darwin/Nettles "Bible", MS. AC 67-85.
      "W. G. Darwin and Polly Burk married Feb. 21, 1833"

    6. [S65] BIB: 1857: William H. Darwin Bible.
      "W[illiam] H[arrison] Darwin Julia A[lcarene Haile] Fox married Jan 9 1869"